Last updateThu, 30 Sep 2021 9am


Introducing – Tools for Cinema Quality Assurance


Cinema Test Tools for the Non-Technical Manager 

  • A free resource for the cinema industry
  • Tuned most particularly for the non-technical manager.
  • Tools include:
    • Several DCPs for testing the sound and picture quality
    • Lessons on sound and light
    • Written to help communicate with the technicians

The key is a free Online Managers Online Walk Through Checklist that correlates with the many DCPs. It helps bring an understanding of the many nuances of the auditorium's situation in a straightforward way. 

Artist's Intent Exposed~! See it here first. Where? In the cinema, the temporary home provided by exhibitors.

Harkness At Puma

"...allowing the 3D presentation to be viewed at suitable brightness levels throughout the entire seating area..."

3D and gain screens and hyperbole seems to go together.

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Black Screen Alert~! InterOp Losing Life Support

Remember "Paradigm Shift"? Of course not. Writers have been banned from using that overworked phrase for another 20 years. The same will soon happen with the misused terms "Perfect Storm" and "begs the question". Notwithstanding, we need a way to describe the potential for Reality-laced Hyperbolic Activity that is coming to Digital Cinema screens everywhere.

Potential Points of Failure Quotient = 10.95. Hyperbole Quotient...OK, InterOp will be around a long time for legacy, but don't expect it to continue for everything else.

Does that describe it? OK, let's see how it can happen (and we'll keep math and the SMPTE Police out of this.)

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The Death of Silver Screens~! Vive la France

In May of 2002, the Attack of the Clones (Star Wars II) was released after a great effort by George Lucas. He encouraged cinema exhibitors to cross over to digital projectors, hoping for 1,000 and getting 100. At the time the digital light engine was a meager 1.3 meg, with pretty low light levels. The contrast left a bit to be desired, especially in the blacks (muddy browns). Against the mighty beauty of a first run film print showing fully saturated colors...especially a dark movie like Clones...the digital print looked pretty weak.

On the other hand, showing that same film print 10 days later, and running back and forth to a digital presentation, one really notices how much saturation gets lost from that film's plastic during its run up to melting point by the lamp before the gate opens. Plus, when the electro-static charge is at its peak, the gate opens – attracting and melting in dust and grit. Suddenly the digital print shows promise - the colors which were once a little weak in comparison are actually better than the film's. The judder is gone, making the picture easier to look at – no small attraction to kids who grew up with stable video presentations watching the cool new animations and CGI heavy movies of 2002 and '03: Shrek II, The Incredibles, Harry Potter II, Nemo, Shark's Tale...

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File Festival–Melzo, International

Melzo International File Festival LogoWhat fun. Third Year. In Melzo, which means, Arcadia, the nicest cinema in the world.

We believe that culture is of fundamental importance.
It is essential to invest in culture rather than to cut funds.

As Albert Camus wrote “Without culture and the related freedom that is derived from it, society, even if it were a perfect one, would be a jungle. This is why every authentic creation is a gift for the future”.

I don't know that Camus made a comment about 3D.

Read the rest of the literature at:

CST 6th Day of Techniques...DCinema

A round of applause erupted during the first panel discussion at today's CST JOURNÉE DES TECHNIQUES DE L’EXPLOITATION ET DE LA DISTRIBUTION.Programme_previsionnel

The projectionist comment had to do with a problem that we have been hearing about all over the world.

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HFR-S3D Post SMPTE/CinemaCon Hobbit

Showbiz Sandbox put some thoughts about the coming high frame rate 3D technology into their show of 7 May 2012. This article responds to some of the thoughts expressed by Michael and Sperling.

I'm going to try the impossible task of verbally describing High Frame Rate projection and clarify a few points.

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Reflections on the Growth of 3D

Posted by Barry B. Sandrew Ph.D.               Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Copied from his Blog, with permission

Engaged in 2D and Immersed in 3D

This month, the multiple 3D films being recognized by the 84th Academy Awards cement the fact that 3D is here to stay. On the heels of the Best Visual Effects nominations for Hugo and Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Legend3D Founder, President, CCO/CTO Barry Sandrew dissects the appeal of 3D for the moviegoer in this two-part blog series on the neuroscience of 2D and 3D feature films. Relying on our current understanding of stereopsis, as described in scientific literature, Sandrew contemplates how our brains differentially perceive images and activate emotional responses when viewing a 2D movie versus a 3D movie.

The group dynamics of the 2D experience

When we attend a 2D movie, the group dynamics of the audience come into play as we direct our collective attention as observers to the images on the screen. Our personal space is infringed upon only tangentially by the other audience members that are sitting on either side of us, as well as by those behind and in front of us. The tangential influence upon us of the surrounding audience is a reminder that we are in a theater with strangers, all watching images being projected on the screen. However, in a 2D movie, our fellow audience members typically do not detract from the experience.  In fact, the audience in a 2D movie is intended to be an integral part of the total feature film experience and has been presented as one of the selling points of attending a 2D move in a theater rather than watching it on DVD or Blu-ray at home. As we become engaged in the movie, we can introspectively sense surprise, anger, sadness and happiness based on the perceived action on the screen and to a lesser degree, through the reactions of the audience members around us. We can empathize and sympathize with the characters being portrayed and we can experience anxiety and fear as we follow the storyline.

Disparity—A key element in the perception of stereo

Our brains receive 2D information in a theater as images presented sequentially at 24 frames per second. In a 2D theater experience, motion is perceived as changes in the up, down and sideways position of one object in relation to other 2D objects.  We perceive three dimensions in a 2D movie via single eye or monocular cues such as occlusion, motion, shading, size, parallax, texture gradient, perspective, saturation and brightness. However, lacking in a 2D movie is the most powerful 3D influence on the brain—disparity. Due to the separation of our eyes and the distance between them, we see a slightly different image from each eye.  This separation causes a horizontal displacement between the images, which is referred to as disparity. The best way to test this is to put your thumb in front of your eyes and alternately close one eye and then the other. You will see two separate perspectives of your thumb displaced horizontally and your thumb will appear to jump from side to side. When these separate images from our left and right eye reach our visual cortex, they are directed to highly specialized neurons that are tuned to critical parameters of disparity.  As a consequence, the two images are fused into one uniquely different image that exhibits the appearance of depth and volume. The result is 3D perception.

A lack of disparity contradicts monocular cues

In a 2D movie, each of our eyes receives precisely identical images from the movie screen with no horizontal displacement. When the two sets of identical images reach the visual cortex of our brain, they are directed primarily to neurons tuned to zero disparity. There, they are “fused” together into a single image that is exactly identical to each of the two images that originally comprised it. Other than the existence of monocular stereo cues, mentioned above, the audience does not perceive depth and volume due to the absence of disparity. This lack of disparity in a 2D movie creates a cue conflict situation that prevents us from being fully immersed in the story in the same manner as a 3D movie. The monocular cues in a 2D movie are telling us there is depth, but the lack of disparity contradicts the monocular cues—forcing the brain to try and reconcile the conflict.

The absence of disparity “pushes” the screen away from us

For some monocular cues, like motion and occlusion, there is a further complication that acts to distance us from the movie screen. As mentioned above, in a 2D movie the relative motion of objects on the screen (one 2D object moving relative to and possibly occluding another 2D object) can indicate depth in the absence of disparity. However, in the real world when there is this kind of relative motion in the absence of disparity, our brains normally interpret that information as indicating that the objects are far away. That’s because disparity in human vision drops off significantly at distances of several hundred yards.  You can prove this if you try the thumb trick above, alternately closing one eye and then the other, but this time, try the trick looking at a tree that is several hundred yards away.  You’ll see that the tree will not appear to jump from side to side like your thumb did. This is because the perspectives from our two eyes at that distance are identical. Our eyes do not converge on the tree, but rather are set to infinity.  The father away things are from us the less horizontal displacement we experience.  So our brain “comes up with” a solution in which we are literally “distanced” from the action on the screen. This distancing and lack of disparity in a 2D movie renders the spatial areas in front of and behind the theater screen irrelevant to the story and therefore irrelevant to each member of the audience. The storytelling, in its entirety, happens on the white screen at the end of the theater.

Skillful use of disparity in a 3D movie will always enhance the experience

In spite of the contradictions our brain must reconcile, a 2D movie is almost always comfortable to watch and with proper directing, cinematography and storytelling, it can evoke very strong emotions. Indeed, many of us remember the outpouring of emotions while watching the sinking of the Titanic or the building terror of T-Rex in Jurassic Park, as both movie experiences were presented in 2D. However, the influence of disparity on the audience in a 3D movie cannot be trivialized as a fad or unnecessary. Whether a 3D movie is captured with two cameras or converted from 2D-to-3D, disparity that is properly and skillfully stereographed will always enhance the storytelling experience by significantly amplifying the responses of disparity-tuned neurons and therefore more closely simulating reality.

3D a higher resolution medium

In the visual system, the absolute number of neurons activated in the brain is not as significant as the ratio of activation between subpopulations of neurons responding to zero disparity and those responding to a wide spectrum of tuned disparities, including zero.  This is analogous to an audio amplifier where the ratio between subpopulations of audio frequencies can vary and increasing the gain on the system increases the overall fidelity of the audio experience, meaning it becomes closer to the original source in resolution.  In the same manner, the ratio of activated zero disparity and disparity-tuned subpopulations of neurons in a 3D movie can vary, but it’s the intensity of the relative responses of those subpopulations that create a more accurate and higher resolution stereo image.  It appears that our brains interpret this higher resolution information as more closely simulating reality (“fidelity”) and therefore it immerses us in the movie to a greater degree, creating a heightened emotional investment in the story.  This is, of course, an oversimplification of an exquisitely complex process that has evolved from the earliest primates. However, the theater going experience is something we can all relate to and many of us recognize the profound difference between being engaged in a 2D movie versus being immersed in a 3D movie.

3D movies are a uniquely personal experience

Dynamic disparity (i.e. the relative amount of disparity, changes in disparity over time and the rate of disparity change) transforms the movie screen from a projection screen into a window that has both an interior and an exterior. Consequently, the storytelling environment is projected throughout the entire theater, actively becoming a unique part of the personal space of each member of the audience and resulting in the space both in front of and behind the screen becoming an integral part of the story. For example, an object that might fly out of the screen at us, traveling through what is called negative parallax, becomes very personal for each member of the audience because it affects and/or “intrudes” each audience members’ personal space equally.  Surround sound has an analogous effect in that we are “in it” rather than simply listening to stereo audio in front of us.  As a result, unlike the 2D movie experience, a 3D movie is more personal and the group dynamics of the larger audience are no longer in play to the same extent.  In fact, it’s my opinion that 3D glasses actually have the positive effect of helping to separate us from the other audience members, containing the experience as a more personal one for each of us, thereby potentially amplifying the immersive nature of the experience.

The Bottom Line

When we are engaged in a 2D movie, we are doing so as passive observers, watching the story take place “over there”, on the screen in front of us. However, when we are immersed in a 3D movie, we are doing so as active participants and the action can be happening behind and in front of us—as far as infinity. This is where the central difference lies. We cannot discount the uniquely active physical and emotional reactions that we have in the 3D feature film experience which are not experienced in our more passive reception of 2D movies. I believe, this is one of the reasons why we have seen 3D continue to flourish and be adopted so enthusiastically by both national and international movie exhibitors, as well as by the entertainment and consumer electronics industries at large. Consumers and moviegoers are hungry for visuals that offer a significantly greater sense of engagement and for visuals that spark an immersive, emotional response that has the ability to transport them into the heart of the action.  This year, we will have the opportunity to test the differential 2D and 3D theatrical experiences with three iconic movies that were originally released in 2D, being released in 3D. Top Gun has been converted by Legend3D and will be re-released on its 25th anniversary by Paramount on the heels of 3D converted re-releases of Titanic and Star Wars.  I am confident that all three films will be very successful at the box office, as each was already a proven success in 2D. Depending on how skillfully each of these films was converted, now in 3D they will give those who saw them originally in 2D an immersive and refreshingly unique experience; an experience that will hopefully help to solidify 3D as an essential part of filmmaking.

Next, we will continue to look at the neuroscience of 3D movies and further explore the uniquely tuned structures and neurons in the brain that respond selectively to dynamic disparity. We’ll look at concepts of visual processing that remain contentious within the scientific community, involving differential pathways within the brain that signal separately “where something is” and “what something is.” The evolutionary survival value of binocular vision will be discussed in the context of 3D movies and we will touch upon more primitive structures in the brain that are likely triggered by disparity to elicit powerful physical emotions and ‘flight’ or ‘fight’ reactions. For more detailed information and technical reviews on stereopsis, as well as in-depth information on the uniquely tuned disparity neurons in many parts of the brain, please see the following references:

(1) Cumming BG, De Angeles GC. (2001). The Physiology of Stereopsis. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 24, 203-238.

(2) Howard, IP, Rogers, BJ. (1995). Binocular Vision and Stereopsis.  New York: Oxford University Press.

(3) Poggio, GF, Poggio, T. (1984). The Analysis of Stereopsis.  Annual Review of Neuroscience. 7, 379-412.

(4) Born, R., Bradley, D. (2005). Structure and Function of Visual Area MT. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 28, 157-189.

I wish to acknowledge the review and insightful suggestions of my neuroscience colleague, David Heeger, Ph.D., Professor at New York University ( where he is a member of the Center for Brain Imaging. The son of Nobel laureate and chemist, Alan J. Heeger, David Heeger is a contemporary neuroscientist who has been at the forefront in the field of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Dr. Heeger was the first to bring together two separate and largely unrelated disciplines—cognitive neuroscience and film studies, opening the way for the exciting new interdisciplinary field of “Neurocinematic” Studies.


About the author (from his site):

This is the first in a series of blogs by Barry Sandrew, Ph.D., founder and CCO/CTO of Legend3D. Sandrew received his doctorate in neuroscience from State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1977. After winning a two year NIH Fellowship at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, he joined the staff at Mass General Hospital and Harvard Medical School as staff Neuroscientist. In 1987, he left his academic and scientific career to found American Film Technologies, and invent the first all-digital colorization process for colorizing black and white feature films. He took that company public while converting hundreds of movies for clients such as Turner, Disney, Warner Bros., Fox, Gaumont, TF1, ABC, and CBS, among many others. Sandrew left colorization to start two new companies, one of which included Lightspan, one of the largest educational software companies in the world. That company went public and was later acquired by Plato Learning. In 2000, Barry then founded Legend Films and began the process of re-inventing colorization and developing a proprietary restoration process. Over the course of the next seven years, Legend Films converted approximately 145 black and white titles to color as well as several TV series. In 2006, he recognized that the future of entertainment would be 3D and, leveraging his proprietary colorization pipeline, he modified the entire R&D direction and business model to embrace 2D-to-3D conversion, changing the name of the company to Legend3D. Today, as the most innovative company in the conversion industry, Legend3D continues to lead the field, delivering the highest quality product with the fastest turn around time, at the most competitive pricing.


The technology of exhibition explained; from media players and projectors, to memory and local storage, from satellites and devices for the hearing and visual or read it here.

Uncountable little pieces of experience add to a wealth of knowledge that should be shared for the betterment of the community. Please contribute.

The feet hitting the street. This is where it all plays out.

Digital, though costing more, allows for more variety, sometimes at a lower cost and a better return. That variety is called "alternative content."

Building auditoriums for the Arts is a tradition from the Greeks. Projection has since been added.