Last updateThu, 30 Sep 2021 9am


Introducing – Tools for Cinema Quality Assurance


Cinema Test Tools for the Non-Technical Manager 

  • A free resource for the cinema industry
  • Tuned most particularly for the non-technical manager.
  • Tools include:
    • Several DCPs for testing the sound and picture quality
    • Lessons on sound and light
    • Written to help communicate with the technicians

The key is a free Online Managers Online Walk Through Checklist that correlates with the many DCPs. It helps bring an understanding of the many nuances of the auditorium's situation in a straightforward way. 

Artist's Intent Exposed~! See it here first. Where? In the cinema, the temporary home provided by exhibitors.

UNIC and Theatrical Exclusivity...Post French Culture Change

"Respect for the life-cycle of a film not only supports a model that has proven successful in terms of cultural diversity..."

On the heels of the French Minister of Culture announcing a deal that will change the distribution structure for films released in cinemas, so they can get to broadcast and streaming sooner in many situations, UNIC, the Union Internationale des Cinémas trade body comes to the defense of theatrical exclusivity in a public statement. 

Du cinéma à la télévision ou les plateformes en ligne : vers un délai réduit pour les films?

BRUSSELS, 17 SEPTEMBER 2018: The International Union of Cinemas (UNIC), representing cinema associations and key operators across 37 territories in Europe, has today added its own voice to those seeking to ensure that films selected for competition at leading film festivals receive a full theatrical release.
Following recent discussions around the selection of films at a number of major film festivals and the decision from the Venice International Film Festival jury to award Alfonso Cuaron’s Roma its Golden Lion prize, the association released the following statement:
“UNIC wishes to express its support for Italian cinema exhibition colleagues and others in encouraging festival competitions only to consider for inclusion those films intended for theatrical release.
Central to the film business is the shared experience of watching a feature film on the big screen, something which creates a strong sense of identity and community. Cinemas offer their audience unique cultural and social experiences, at the same time allowing films truly to do justice to their director’s vision and, through their exclusive nature, create unparalleled excitement around their release.
This is a proven strategy that ultimately benefits the entire film value-chain. The theatrical success of each film helps drive its performance and audience awareness on other platforms. Growth in subsequent markets – including Video on Demand – develops best on these strong foundations. It should not come at the expense of theatrical exclusivity.
The cinema industry can exist alongside streaming providers, but believes that their – and the audience’s – best interests are served by a film receiving a proper cinema release, including a clear and distinct window.
Respect for the life-cycle of a film not only supports a model that has proven successful in terms of cultural diversity, but also offers the opportunity for the widest possible audience to discover and enjoy as broad a range of film content as possible. Leading film festivals should encourage practices that benefit the audience as a whole, through the inclusion of films in their official selection that are within everyone’s reach and not just that of streaming platform subscribers. Should films be available solely on these platforms  or receive only a "technical" release in another window - yet still benefit from festival selection as a marketing tool in addition to their considerable resources - the vast majority of their potential audience would be denied access to great content.
Films belong on the big screen and we therefore encourage leading international film festivals to take a lead from the Cannes Film Festival and celebrate the social, cultural and economic relevance of cinemas when designing their future selection policies.”
The International Union of Cinemas (UNIC)
The Union Internationale des Cinémas/International Union of Cinemas (UNIC) represents the interests of cinema trade associations and cinema operators covering 37 countries in Europe and neighbouring regions.

Signing In Cinema

Movies at the cinema, a cultural phenomena that involves a blend of technology and groups of people, is taking one more step into Inclusiveness. The imperfect solutions for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, the Blind and Partially Sighted are more and more part of every cinema facility – either special glasses that present words in mid-air or equipment that places words on at the end of bendable post, and earphones that transmit either a special enhanced (mono) dialog track or a different mono track that includes a narrator who describes the action. [At right: One of two brands of Closed Caption reading devices.]Closed Caption Reading Device

Work is now nearing completion on a required new set of technologies that will help include a new group of people into the rich cultural experiences of movie-going. The tools being added are for those who use sign language to communicate. As has been common for the inclusion path, compliance with government requirements are the driving force. This time the requirement comes from Brazil, via a "Normative Instruction" that by 2018 (the time schedule has since been delayed) every commercial movie theater in Brazil must be equipped with assistive technology that guarantees the services of subtitling, descriptive subtitling, audio description and Libras.

Libras (Lingua Brasileira de Sinaisis) is the acronym for the Brazilian version of sign language for their deaf community. Libras is an official language of Brazil, used by a segment of the population estimated at 5%. The various technology tools to fulfil the sign language requirements are part of the evolving accessibility landscape. In this case, as often has happened, an entrepreneur who devised a cell phone app was first to market – by the time that the rules were formalized, cell phones belonging to the individual were not allowed to be part of the solution.

The option of using cell phones seems like a logical choice at first glance, but there are several problems with their use in a dark cinema theatre. They have never been found acceptable for other in-theatre uses, and this use case is no exception. The light that they emit is not designed to be restricted to just that one audience member (the closed caption device above does restrict the viewing angle and stray light), so it isn't just a bother for the people in the immediate vicinity – phone light actually decreases perceived screen contrast for anyone getting a dose in their field of vision. Cell phones also don't handle the script securely, which is a requirement of the studios which are obligated to protect the copyrights of the artists whose work they are distributing. And, of course, phones have a camera pointing at the screen – a huge problem for piracy concerns.

The fact is, there are problems with each of the various accessibility equipment offerings.

Accessibility equipment users generally don't give 5 Stars for the choices they've been given, for many and varied reasons. Some of the technology – such as the device above which fits into the seat cup holder – requires the user to constantly re-focus, back-and-forth from the distant screen to the close foreground words illuminated in the special box mounted on a bendable stem. Another choice – somewhat better – is a pair of specialized glasses that present the words seemingly in mid-air with a choice of distance. While these are easier on the eyes if one holds their head in a single position, the words move around as one moves their head. Laughter causes the words to bounce. Words go sideways and in front of the action if you place your head on your neighbor's shoulder.

[This brief review is part of a litany of credible issues, best to be reviewed in another article. It isn't only a one-sided issue either – exhibitors point out that the equipment is expensive to buy, losses are often disproportionate to their use, and manufacturers point out that the amount of income derived doesn't support continuous development of new ideas.)]

These (and other) technology solutions are often considered to be attempts to avoid the most simple alternative – putting the words on the screen in what is called "Open Caption". OC is the absolute favorite of the accessibility audience. Secure, pristine, on the same focal plane, and importantly, all audience members are treated the same – no need to stand in line then be dragging around special equipment while your peers are chatting up somewhere else. But since words on screen haven't been widely used since shortly after 'talkies' became common, the general audience aren't used to them and many fear they would vehemently object. Attempts to schedule special open screening times haven't worked in the past for various reasons.

And while open caption might be the first choice for many, it isn't necessarily the best choice for a child, for example. Imagine the child who has been trained in sign language longer than s/he has been learning to read, who certainly can't read as fast as those words speeding by in the new Incredibles movie. But signing? ...probably better.  

Sign language has been used for years on stage, or alongside public servants during announcements, or on the TV or computer screen. So in the cinema it is the next logical step. And just in time, as the studios and manufacturing technology teams are able to jump on the project when many new enabling components are available and tested and able to be integrated into new solutions.

These include recently designed and documented synchronization tools that have gone through the SMTPE and ISO processes, which work well with the newly refined SMPTE compliant DCP (now shipping!, nearly worldwide – yet another story to be written.) These help make the security and packaging concerns of a new datastream more easily addressable within the existing standardized workflows. The question started as 'how to get a new video stream into the package?' After much discussion, the choice was made to include that stream as a portion of the audio stream.

There is history in using some of the 8 AES pairs for non-audio purposes (motion seat data, for example). And there are several good reasons for using an available, heretofore unused channel of a partly filled audio pair. Although the enforcement date has been moved back by the Brazilian Normalization group, the technology has progressed such that the main facilitator of movies for the studios, Deluxe, has announced their capability of handling this solution. The ISDCF has a Technical Document in development and under consideration which should help others, and smooth introduction worldwide if that should happen. [See: ISDCF Document 13 - Sign Language Video Encoding for Digital Cinema (a document under development) on the ISDCF Technical Documents web page.]

One major question remains. Where is the picture derived from? The choices are:

  1. to have a person do the signing, or
  2. to use the cute emoticon-style of a computer-derived avatar.

Choice one requires a person to record the signs as part of the post-production process, just as sub-titling or dubbing is done in a language that is different from the original. Of course, translating the final script of the edited movie can only be done at the very last stage of post, and like dubbing requires an actor with a particular set of skills who has to do the work, which then still has to be edited to perfection and approved and QC’d – all before the movie is released.

An avatar still requires that translation. But the tool picks words from the translation, matches them to a dictionary of sign avatars, and presents them on the screen that is placed in front of the user. If there is no avatar for that word or concept, then the word is spelled out, which is what is the common practice in live situations.

There has been a lot of debate within the community about whether avatars can transmit the required nuance. After presentations from stakeholders, the adjudicating party in Brazil reached the consensus that avatars are OK to use, though videos of actors doing the signing being preferred.

The degree of nuance in signing is very well explained by the artist Christine Sun Kim  in the following TED talk. She uses interesting allegories with music and other art to get her points across. In addition to explaining, she also shows how associated but slightly different ideas get conveyed using the entire body of the signer.

Embed Code from Ted Talk

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Link from Ted Talk

Nuance is difficult enough to transmit well in written language. Most of us don’t have experience with avatars, except perhaps if we consider our interchanges with Siri and Alexa – there we notice that avatar-style tools only transmit a limited set of tone/emphasis/inflection nuance, if any at all. Avatar based signing is a new art that needs to express a lot of detail.

The realities of post production budgets and movie release times and other delivery issues get involved in this issue and the choices available. The situation with the most obstacles is getting all the final ingredients prepared for a day and date deadline. Fortunately, some of these packages can be sent after the main package and joined at the cinema, but either way the potential points of failure increase.

In addition to issues of time, issues of budget come into play. Documentary or small movies made, often made with a country’s film commission funds are often quite limited. Independants with small budgets may run out of credit cards without being able to pay for the talent required to have human signing. Avatars may be the only reasonable choice versus nothing.

At CinemaCon we saw the first of the two technologies presented by two different companies.

Riolte Sign Language System InterfaceRiole® is a Brazilian company which developed a device that passes video from the DCP to a specialized color display that plays the video of the signing actor, as well as simultaneously presenting printed words. It uses SMPTE standard sync and security protocols and an IR emitter. Their cinema line also includes an audio description receiver/headphone system.  

Dolby Labs also showed a system that is ready for production, which uses the avatar method. What we see on the picture at the right is a specially designed/inhibited ‘phone’ that the cinema chain can purchase locally. A media player gets input from the closed caption feed from the DCP, then matches that to a library of avatars. The signal is then broadcast via wifi to the ‘phones’. Dolby has refreshed their line of assistive technology equipment, and this will fit into that groups offerings.Dolby Sign Language System Interface

Both companies state that they are working on future products/enhancements that will include the other technology, Riole working on avatars, Dolby working on videos.

There has been conjecture in the past as to whether other countries might follow with similar signing requirements. At this point that remains as conjecture. Nothing but rumors have been noted.

There are approximately 300 different sign languages in use around the world, including International Sign which is used at international gatherings. There are a lot of kids who can't read subtitles, open or closed. Would they (and we) be better off seeing movies with their friends or waiting until the streaming release at home?

This is a link to a Statement from the WFD and WASLI on Use of Signing Avatars


Link for “Thank you very much” in ASL thank2.mp4

EU Cinema-Going Report

UNIC LogoCinemaCon is the official event at which NATO will announce the stats for US (or perhaps North America) cinema going. 

But it is today that the Union Internationale des Cinémas – UNIC – released the partial totals from throughout the various countries for 2016. The news is basically positive. One great thing about EU numbers is that they get broken out with admissions as well as monetary income, something we don't always see from other areas.

Another interesting fact waltz is seeing how well local movies did in each country. In 4 of the 28 countries, the top 3 movies were National productions, in another 3 it was the top 2, and in Turkey, all 5 of the top 5 were Turkish productions. Of course, Turkey is still working toward a quarter-million euro year, but they did have an increase of 2% box office (though a 3% decrease in attendance). 

Read more ...

NATO Code of Conduct – Well Done!

John Fithian, President, NATO, and Jackie Brenneman, Counsel and Director of Industry Relations, NATO, issued the following extremely direct and well written policy concerning harassment, discrimination, sexism, and threatening or disrespectful behavior. As CinemaCon is upon us, this Code of Conduct is pointed there but the write up points out that it will be enforced at all NATO events. 


CinemaCon is the largest and most important gathering of the motion picture theater industry, with attendees from cinema companies, studios, vendors, and more from across the globe. All participants, attendees, speakers, sponsors, trade floor exhibitors, staff and volunteers at CinemaCon are required to agree with the following code of conduct. We expect cooperation from all participants to help ensure a safe and nonhostile environment for everybody.

The National Association of Theatre Owners is committed to allowing attendees to experience CinemaCon free of harassment, discrimination, sexism, and threatening or disrespectful behavior. CinemaCon attendees violating this policy may have their credentials or access revoked without a refund at the discretion of the conference organizers.

Please note we will also be setting up an 24-hour hotline during convention dates, allowing attendees at any time to report the behavior if they are being harassed or witness someone else being harassed.

We value your attendance and appreciate your adherence to this policy.

Read more ...

Accessibility Technology Requirements for Cinema

A White Paper in which Harold Hallikainen of USL/QSC gives the critical information about the most recent United States Department of Justice rules for accessibility equipment in the cinema auditorium.

The deadlines (from last page of report) are:

  • Assistive Listening Systems are required to be operational now (rules requiring them are more than 20 years old). 
  • Staff Requirements are effective January 17, 2017, if a theater is providing closed captioning or audio description.
  • Advertising Requirements are effective January 17, 2017, if a theater is providing closed captioning or audio description.
  • Closed Captioning and Audio Description equipment is to be operational by June 2, 2018. However, if a theater converts from film to digital after December 2, 2016, closed captioning and audio description equipment must be installed within 6 months of the conversion or December 2, 2018, whichever is later.

European Cinema Industry Sees Further Growth in 2017 – UNIC

There's a thousand excuses for the cinema audience number trouble in the US. Last year was following the highest year ever, it was missing one weekend compared to the previous, if just one or two of the expected block-fails were a block-buster...Wowie, the US would be in highest ever again!

Of course, this is a typical situation for a mature business. Every year can't be highest ever.

One might say that the EU might be a mature market as well, but there are a few differences that should be considered.

Read more ...

Europe Report and Conference from UNIC

UNIC – Union Internationale des Cinémas – has presented a new report titled Innovation and the Big Screen. With as many useful graphics as words, with concise summaries of the many various elements that are made possible by the rollout of digital cinema, the presentation offers an overview of the potential for, and need of, cinema(s) in the future.

UNIC Report 2017After stating that digital technology has both established unparalleled and diverse film availability to consumers at more than 38,000 member cinema screens, digital technology has also been key to the strength of VOD [among other distractions for the cinema audience], the report points out:

"The role of cinemas in raising awareness around and providing access to a diverse European film offer is therefore ever more important to maintain competitiveness and diversity inEuropean cinema. UNIC data for a number of territories shows that the level of local and Europeanfilms enjoyed in cinemas has continuously increased over the past years if one takes alonger-term perspective. In this context, sup- port networks such as Europa Cinemas help maintain audience demand for non-national European titles and are the best way to promote apan-Europeean market for local films.

There are other reports available for more in-depth detail of the many interesting segments of cinemas place in the social and financial fabric. UNIC has a few, and Media Sales has kept an ongoing record of the industry.

On the other hand, this report is meant to give a full overview of the current and future well-being of cinema now that the roll-out of digital is complete. It highlights most of the many different enterprises available to commercializing that have been or shall be available to exhibition by means of digital cinema. Many have been successful, but never well integrated or well scaled. This is true throughout the world and the reasons range from corporate miscalculation to technology and standards not being quite ready...and just plain bad luck.   

The report seems to be a highlight piece for an upcoming European Parliament Conference on 8 February titled "INNOVATION AND THE BIG SCREEN – The Future of Cinema in Digital Europe". This 3 hour panel in Bruxelles will review many of these topics, keying on growth and strategies for fostering innovation in cinema. Innovation and the Big Screen conference at the European Parliament on 8 February 2017 | UNIC

It is probably no coincidence that this report is also well timed for the Event Cinema Association event that begins tomorrow in London – ECACon 2017. The growing strengths of that organization will perhaps bring momentum through to CinemaCon and throughout the world.

Celluloid Junkie has an interview article with the principles of UNIC at: CJ + UNIC Cinema Innovation - Interview with VP European Commission Andrus Ansip and UKCA/UNIC's Phil Clapp - Celluloid Junkie

Cinema Stats 2017


The technology of exhibition explained; from media players and projectors, to memory and local storage, from satellites and devices for the hearing and visual or read it here.

Uncountable little pieces of experience add to a wealth of knowledge that should be shared for the betterment of the community. Please contribute.

The feet hitting the street. This is where it all plays out.

Digital, though costing more, allows for more variety, sometimes at a lower cost and a better return. That variety is called "alternative content."

Building auditoriums for the Arts is a tradition from the Greeks. Projection has since been added.